Protecting women from conflict-related sexual violence and facilitating their meaningful participation in peace processes are the cornerstones of the UN’s Women, Peace, and Security agenda. However, the international community has yet to systematically engage with women as combatants and perpetrators of violence.

Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) is an important area that has often excluded women. Since 1992, Mozambique has participated in several peace processes and two national DDR programs (in 1992 and 2019). Although the 1992 DDR largely excluded women from the design and implementation of the program, the 2019 DDR addressed some of the shortcomings of the earlier process. In this brief, we examine the causes and consequences of these exclusionary and inclusionary dynamics.

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